How does email works? Steps and Explanation


How does email works: Email is a method of sending messages, voice, video, and graphics over a digital communication link, such as the Internet, anywhere in the world at cost-effective rates. Technically, e-mail is a type of client/server application that provides a routed, stored message service between any two e-mail accounts). A popular protocol for sending e-mail is simple mail transfer protocol and a popular protocol for receiving it is POP3.  What is a POP3 server, and how does it hold your mail? Its turn out that e-mail is an incredibly simple system at its core. Both Netscape and Microsoft include an email utility with their web browsers.

Know – How does Email Works?

How does email works? Steps and Explanation
How does email works? Steps and Explanation

How does email work?

Billions of electronic mail (e-mail) messages move across the Internet every year. Sending electronic letters, pictures and data files, either across a building or across the globe, has grown so popular that it has started to replace some postal mail and telephone calls. This universal medium is no longer restricted to exchange of simple text messages and is now regularly used to deliver voice mail, facsimiles and documents that may include images, sound and video.

Typically, a message becomes available to the recipient within seconds after it is sent—one reason why Internet mail has transformed the way that we are able to communicate.

1 MESSAGE SENDER: uses mail software, called a client, to compose a document, possibly including attachments such as tables, photographs or even a voice or video recording. System software, called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), divides the message into packets and adds information about how each packet should be handled, for instance, in what order packets were transmitted from the sender. Packets are sent to a mail submission server, a computer on the internal network of a company or an Internet service provider.

2 INTERNET MAIL ADDRESSES: attached to each message are in the form “[email protected]” – one specific example being “[email protected]” The multipart domain name in the above example denotes a top-level domain (“.com”) following the second-level domain (“seniorindian”). A message is delivered to an individual or a group by the mailbox name (“webmaster”).

3 MAIL SUBMISSION SERVER: converts the domain name of the recipient’s mail address into a numeric Internet Protocol (IP) address. It does this by querying domain name servers interspersed throughout the Internet. For example, the mail submission server can first request from the “root” name server the whereabouts of other servers that store information about “.com” domains (a). It can then interrogate the “.com” name server for the location of the specific “” name server (b). A final request to the “” name server provides the IP address for the computer that receives the mail for, which is then attached to each message packet (c).

4 ROUTERS: dispersed throughout the Internet read the IP address on a packet and relay it toward its destination by the most efficient path. (Because of fluctuating traffic over data lines, trying to transmit a packet directly to its destination is not always the fastest way.) The packets of a single message may travel along different routes, shuttling through 10 or so routers before their journey’s end.

5 DESTINATION MAIL SERVER: places the packets in their original order, according to the instructions contained in each packet, and stores the message in the recipient’s mailbox. The recipient’s client software can then display the message.

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