What is internet? How does the internet work? I can say certainly, never you would know before about internet so briefly.
When you chat with someone in internet or send mail to anyone, then have you thought ever that to complete these works how much different computers are working together? You have been sitting by the computer at the table or knee, and at the other side, your friend has been prepared with computer for contacting with you.
Let’s know about internet and its work.
But there are dozen computers in the gap between you and your friend’s computer, which is filling the gap between you and your friend’s computer. And in this way, a computer is connected to another computer throughout the whole world and this is the internet. But how is this different computer able to establish a relationship within themselves? Friends, let’s view all this matter totally from the center.
What is internet?
Global communication system has been more developed now and all this credit goes to it, which name is internet. In less time of the last 20 years, its expansion has been spread in almost 210 countries. Even also many poorer countries of the world have been connected to this net.
Most of the people think including you and me also that, the meaning of internet word is going to online. But speaking the truth, this is a normal computer network, nothing else. Suppose about a road which covers around the whole world. Like, traffic flows by road to its destination, same like that, date flows by several computers to its destination. And this is the main base of internet. Actually internet is a system of connecting with different computers together (computer in your house, office computer, computer of School College).
In several ways a computer is connected to another computer. Some computers are connected with copper cable and some computers are connected with the fibre optic cable (which sends data in light’s bits) or some computers are connected with wireless connection (it establishes a relation through radio wave) and some computers are connected by satellite. In this way, we can enjoy the benefits of instant message, email service or downloading MP3 music files.
What is the actual work of the Internet?
In fact, the job of internet is very easy, He only exchanges data from one place to another place, complete. Which machines have made internet together, the main work of them is exchanging data. In fact internet can be compared with the tunnel service if it is compared.
Letters are exchanged to another place in tunnel service. But this is not the matter that from where the letters came or what is written in letters. And if letters are totally blank still tunal service has no problem. Its work is only reaching letters, it will reach letters. It works same in internet also.
Internet like tunal service sustains many information and it sends from one place to another place. It’s mean, if any, data exchanges then internet will complete that. Now you sent an email, there is no relation of internet with it. But there is the matter of data exchanging that will help you to complete internet. Now we have found out new uses on the formula of exchanging data. Like when two European investors made Skype then they bought telephone talk into the net. They made a program where our talk can be made into data and through exchanging that conversation continuous. But it is not possible to make different internet for Skype of exchanging our conversation directly.
How does data of internet exchange?
The internet mainly works like a telephone network. But carrying data on internet and calling on telephone line are different matter. When you ring any friend then a direct connection is opened between you and your friend. Until you are connected in telephone, circuit is opened till that time. The process of connecting a telephone with another telephone is called circuit switching. When whose talk will be heard or whose talk will be send, which controls the electronic exchange system.
But the friends you will understand if you think of that, circuit switching are an inefficient process for establishing any network. When you will be connected with friends in a phone, then another person will not establish relation with you in that line. (Suppose, you have typed an email to anyone, it could take hours to type, and if anyone can’t send any mail to you at this time, then?). Suppose you have talked slowly in telephone or you are taking a long gap to talk or going to talk you went to bring a mug of coffee, keeping up the phone. So you are not sending any data at that time, but after that, still your phone is connected to another friend’s phone. The bill is being charged for every second and you talked or not, connected phone means anybody can’t call in that line. So circuit switching never can be ideal networked. Then how does internet carry data, using what type of network?
Sometime internet uses circuit switching process to carry data till now. Like if you use dial-up connection (where your computer dial telephone number to reach for internet receiver, and it works as a normal call) to connect with internet. Here you used circuit switching process for coming in online. So anybody can’t call you till I was connected. And you have to pay money for staying connected for every second. Instead of this, net connection will work with slow speed.
But most of internet data is carried in a new complete process, which name is packet switching. Suppose you want to send email to any Indian friend. So here no need to connect directly Indian friend and you to get this complete mail. In packet switching, after sending mail that is divided into many parts. And these parts are called packets. Each packet is tagged that where they have to go and they can travel in different ways. When parts reach to their destination than they are united again, for which that can be displayed as mail.
The packet switching process is more efficient than a circuit switching process. You never need to stay connected totally with anyone. So you are not keeping anybody’s line totally. Other person can use same line in same time. And particular packets will arrive to the right address. As packets reach by travelling in different ways, so no obstruction happens. As a result, too much fast speed can be seen.
How does packet switching work?
Before understanding that what does packet switching work, you need to understand that about how does circuit switching work. Suppose you live in America and made plans to come in Bangladesh. Suppose you are thinking that not only goods rather your building also. But think about a bad dream where you have brought your total house from one border of the world to another border of the world. Then what you have to do?
First, you have to see such a road with which you can travel easily. Then you will need some truck. And you will need a special ship for crossing the sea. Think about all, that matter became so difficult. You will go back a few days for carrying so much things together. Because your destination will become slow. If someone try to come in the same way, then he will face same obstacles. Actually circuit switching process works in the same way. And telephone call is held in the same process.
Now imagine another situation. Suppose you took off your building and gave the number to each brick. You filled each brick in different envelops and in each way you sent that to their destination. Some may go on a ship or some may go by air. When all bricks arrived together, then by matching numbers of bricks and then same building will prepare as before. As bricks have come from travelling in different ways, so it will not create any jam in the road. And others can use the same road in same time.
Packet switching works in this process. When you email or browse any site with a browser, then all data are divided into many packets and it spreads on internet.
How does computer work differently in internet?
There are a hundred million computers around whole internet. But they don’t work same. Among them, some computers collect only data and some information are delivered to anywhere if it is requested. And these machines are called server. Which machines store any document that is called a file server. Which servers sustain our mail that is called mail server. And which servers sustain web page that is called a web server. There are million servers in internet.
Which computers collect data from a server that is called client computer. When you enter in internet for checking mail then your computer is a client, ISP (Internet Service Provider) is server and mail comes from mail server. Client’s number is more than internet server, almost billion or so.
When two computer exchange data with each other then it is called peers. If your message instantly with friends or exchange photo, then it is called peer-to-peer or (P2P) communication. In P2P, computer acts sometime as client or sometime as server. Suppose you sent a photo to your friend then computer will work as a server (sent photo). And your friend’s computer will work as a client (photo will access). And if your friend sent a photo, then his computer will work as a server (sent photo) and now your computer will work as a client (photo will access).
There is also middle computer without server and client, which is another part of internet. The name of this part is a router. This helps only to establish connection between different systems. If there are many computers in the house or school or office, then combining all router helps to connect them in internet.
TCP/IP and DNS:
The actual matter of exchanging data in internet is not easy like carrying bricks of any house in an envelop. It is not possible by us to control internet’s data. Infinite data are exchanged in net each day- 250 million websites of the world have drafted almost 3 billion emails and downloaded and uploaded several data traffic massive quantity.
Its answer is TCP/IP or Transmission Control/Internet Protocol. This system helps to reach all these packets to their destination. You can say it’s 2 in 1 system. In the world of computer, “protocol” means a standard which believes all and that makes sure all things have reached completely. Now the question has come in your mind that, actually what does TCP/IP do? Let’s know that.
Internet Protocol or IP is a normal addressing system. There are different IPs in everybody’s machine in internet. When each machine has different IPs then it can be recognized easily which machine is what and according to that it is possible to send packets. Mainly IP address is entering of some numbers. And using a comma or colon numbers are divided.
In case of website, the matter is different. The name is used to keep in mind easily instead of IP on the website. Like Techubs.Net. The name of this system is DNS or Domain Name Server. After entering the domain name in a browser, the computer starts to find this IP and if IP is found, then the site is open from the web server.
IP is mainly two types. One is IPv4 and another is IPv6. There are 4 digits in IPv4. Like 220.127.116.11 or 18.104.22.168. But there is no IPv4 address left in quick rising internet world. So one new system has been invented which name is IPv6. This is so long than IPv4.
123a:b716:7291:0da2:912c:0321:0ffe:1da2 is the example of IPv6.
Another part of this control system is Transmission Control Protocol or TCP. This system allocates that, how packet has to send from one IP to another IP. And this system collects receiving packets. And at the time of sending packet if any packet is missed then it resends.
I don’t know, did I or not to mention the basic matter to you wonderful and easily. Yet I have tried my level best. If there is a problem to get any subject, then inform us below and share this tune definitely.