I have published again “Computer Network Question Answer” (Part 7) – only for you. Please make a copy of all questions.
Computer Network Question Answer – (Part 7)
1. What is the role of router?
A router routes the packets between two networks. It reads the information in each packet to determine where it is going. If the packet is destined for an immediate network to which it has access, then it strips the outer packet, readdresses the packet to the proper Ethernet address, and transmits it on that network. If the packet is destined for another network, then it re-packages the outer packet and sends it to the next router.
2. What layer does a router works on?
A router works on the network layer of the OSI model.
3. What is the difference between static router and dynamic router?
Static router is configured manually; whereas, dynamic router uses the dynamic routing algorithm to route the packets.
4. What layer does brouters work on?
Brouters work on both the network layer and the data link layer of the OSI model. It works on the network layer for routable protocols and on the data link layer for non-routabie protocols.
5. What is the role of gateways?
Gateways translate information between different network architectures or network data formats. For example, it can translate TCP/IP to AppleTalk so that the computers supporting TCP/IP can communicate with the Apple brand computers.
6. Define gateways.
Gateways are translators comprised of hardware and software. Often they are dedicated servers with some kind gateway software installed.
7. Which device is used to divide a network into logical subnets?
Router is used to divide a network into logical subnets.
8. Which lowest level device can be used to filter the network traffic; thereby, reducing communication load?
Bridges can be used to filter traffic and reduce communication load.
9. What is Next Generation TCP/IP stack?
Next Generation TCP/IP stack is a new implementation of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) functionality for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to meet the connectivity and performance needs of today’s networking environments and technologies. The features of the Next Generation TCP/IP stack include support for dual IP layer architecture for IPv6 and strong host model. In addition, it provides new packet filtering Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and mechanisms for protocol stack offload.
10. What is the role of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)?
When routers become congested, the incoming packets fill the buffer, which in turn begins dropping packets. In such a case, ECN for TCP/IP provides a way for routers to inform TCP peers that their buffers are filling due to the congestion in a network and force them to slow their transmission of data to help prevent packet losses.
11. Can you uninstall IPv6 in Windows 2008?
No, IPv6 cannot be uninstalled in Windows 2008; however, it can be disabled.
12. Which component makes it possible to use multiple protocols on computer?
Transport Driver Interface makes it possible to use multiple protocols on computer.
13. What do you mean by unbinding the protocol?
Unbinding the protocol prevents a network interface adapter from using one of the installed protocol modules on the computer.
14. Which component connects to the remote source of data, downloads the file, and passes it back to Windows?
Redirector has the knowledge on how to connect to the remote source of data, download the file, and pass it back to Windows, which in turn passes it back to the user or the program.
15. What is the role of Server Manager in Windows Server 2008 R2?
Server Manager helps administrators through the process of installing, configuring, and managing server roles and features that are part of Windows Server 2008 R2. It provides a single location for administrators to change the server’s system properties and install or remove roles or features.
16. What is Windows PowerShell?
Windows PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language to achieve greater productivity and make control system administration easy. It accelerates automation of system administration tasks and improves organization’s ability to address the unique system-management problems in server environment.
17. Which service helps in setting up new computers by using a network-based installation?
Windows Deployment Service helps in setting up new computers by using a network-based installation.
18. Name the tool used to monitor and assess system performance and reliability.
Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor is the tool used to monitor and assess system performance and reliability. It provides a graphical interface for customizing performance data collection and Event Trace sessions.
19. What is Interrupt Request Line (IRQ) used for?
IRQs are hardware lines over which hardware devices send the interrupt signals to the microprocessor.
20. What is Input /output (I/O) port address used for?
I/O ports are those sections of memory that the hardware devices use to communicate with the operating system. When a microprocessor receives an IRQ, the operating system checks the I/O port address to get the details of the hardware device that has triggered the communication.
21. What is Direct Memory Access (DMA)?
DMA is a feature of computers and microprocessors that allows disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards, and sound cards within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
22. How does a Plug and Play device automate the hardware installation process?
When a Plug and Play device is connected to the computer, a new hardware is detected by the computer and it searches for the driver, which is then installed, and configures the hardware to use the system resources.
23. What is device driver?
Device driver is a software component that provides an interface between the hardware of a computer and its operating system. Hardware, such as keyboards, controllers, and graphics cards, requires device drivers so that the operating system can detect the devices and handle them effectively and efficiently.
24. What do you mean by client and server?
Client and server are two different machines (physical or virtual) connected in such a manner that whenever a client posts some request to a server, the server provides an appropriate response to the client.
25. What are the new networking features in Windows 2008 R2?
Following are the new networking features in Windows 2008 R2:
URL-based Quality of Service (QoS).
Mobile broadband device support.
Multiple active firewall profiles.
NDF, Network Tracing, and Netsh Trace.
26. What are the different service packs available for Windows 2003 and Windows 2008?
For both Windows 2003 and Windows 2008, available service packs are SP1 and SP2.
27. What is the role of DirectAccess?
DirectAccess enables users to access an enterprise network without the extra step of initiating a Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection.
28. What is the role of VPN Reconnect?
VPN Reconnect automatically re-establishes a VPN connection as soon as Internet connectivity is restored, saving users from re-entering their credentials and recreating the VPN connection.
29. What is the role of BranchCache?
BranchCache enables updated content from file and Web servers on a Wide Area Network (WAN) to be cached on computers at a local branch office, improving application response time and reducing WAN traffic.
30. What is the role of URL-based QoS?
URL-based QoS enables administrators to assign a priority level to traffic based on the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) from which the traffic originates.
31. What is the role of mobile broadband device support?
Mobile broadband device support provides a driver-based model for devices that are used to access a mobile broadband network.
32. What is the role of multiple active firewall profiles?
Multiple active firewall profiles enable the firewall rules most appropriate for each network adapter based on the network to which it is connected.
33. What is the role of NDF, Network Tracing, and Netsh Trace?
NDF, Network Tracing, and Netsh Trace integrate the Network Diagnostics Framework with Network Tracing and a new Netsh context, Netsh Trace, to simplify and consolidate network connectivity troubleshooting processes.
34. What is Netsh?
Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that is used to display or modify the network configuration of a computer that is currently running. Both remote computers and local computers can be configured by using the netsh command. Netsh also provides a scripting feature that allows you to run a group of commands in batch mode against a specified computer.
35. What is the role of live migration in Windows 2008 R2?
Live migration enables customers to move virtual machines from one host to another with no perceivable downtime. It facilitates hardware maintenance, and upgrades manual failover and the consolidation of workloads on fewer servers.
36. What is the function of Hyper-V Processor Compatibility Mode for live migration?
Hyper-V Processor Compatibility Mode allows live migration across different CPU versions within the same processor family, such as Intel Core 2 to Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Opteron to AMD Athlon. It also enables migration across a broader range of server host hardware.
37. What is File Classification Infrastructure (FCI)?
FCI provides a built-in solution to classify and manage files to users and help them to save time and money. Administrators can automatically classify files based on content and location, generate reports, and schedule file management tasks to manage data.
38. Explain the difference between Windows Server 2008 R2 license and Windows Server 2008 CAL?
The Windows Server 2008 CAL grants the right to a device or user to access the server software; whereas, the Windows Server 2008 R2 license gives the license holder the right to create, copy, store, and run the server software.
39. Is Windows Server 2008 a prerequisite for Windows Server 2008 R2?
No, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2003 R2 can be upgraded to Windows Server 2008 R2.
40. What is the difference between a Device CAL and a User CAL?
A Windows Server Device CAL permits one device to access or use the server software; whereas, a Windows Server User CAL permits one user irrespective of a device to access or use the server software.
41. What is Volume Licensing?
When you acquire licenses from Microsoft and its partners in certain quantities or volumes, they offer discounts from their retail product prices. Volume Licensing programs offer companies of all sizes an economical way to buy and manage multiple software licenses for as few as five desktops.
42. What is Software Assurance (SA)?
Software Assurance (SA) is a way for Volume Licensing customers to keep up to date with the latest and most innovative Microsoft products. Customers acquire the right to install any new release of a product covered in the agreement during the term of the coverage.
43. What is primary and extended partition?
Primary partition is an active partition where the hardware looks for boot files to start the operating system. Extended partition is created from whatever free space remains on the disk after creating the primary partition.
44. What is Internet SCSI (iSCSI)?
iSCSI is an industry standard that enables transmission of Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) block commands over the existing Internet Protocol (IP) network by using the TCP/IP protocol. It provides the possibility of delivering both messaging traffic and block-based storage over existing IP networks, without installing a separate and expensive Fibre Channel network.
45. What is Distributed File System or Network File System (DFS/NFS)?
DFS/NFS is any file system that allows access to multiple users on multiple machines to share files and storage resources.
46. What is SCSI?
SCSI (pronounced as scuzzy) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between peripheral devices and computers.
47.What is a frame?
Answer: A frame is a digital “envelope” that provides the information necessary for the delivery of data across a data link. Typical components of a frame are identifiers (addresses) of the source and destination devices on the data link, an indicator of the type of data enclosed in the frame, anderror-checking information.
48.What feature is common to all frame types?
Answer: A feature common to all frame types is a format for identifying devices on the data link.
49.What is a MAC address or MAC identifier?
Answer: A Media Access Control address or identifier is a means by which individual devices connected to a data link are uniquely identified for the purpose of delivering data.
50.Why is a MAC address not a true address?
Answer: An address specifies a location. A MAC address is not a true address because it is permanently associated with the interface of a specific device and moves whenever the device moves. A MAC identifies the device, not the location of the device.