Computer Network Question Answer – (Part 6)


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Computer Network Question Answer – (Part 6)

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1. List the commonly used coaxial cable?
Following are the commonly used Coaxial cables:

10Base5(Ethernet)- RG8 and RG11.
Cable TV-RG59.

2. What is fiber-optic cable?
Fiber-optic cable is used to transmit light signals over long distances. It has the ability to carry large amount of bandwidth over a greater distance at faster speeds. Fiber- optic cable has the core in the center, which is the glass fiber that carries the light signals. The cladding layer surrounds the core and acts as a mirror allowing the light to reflect off it as the light travels. Outermost layer of the cable is buffer coating, which protects both fiber and cladding, and prevents signals from leaking out of the cable. It also protects the fiber from damage and moisture.

3. Explain the function of fiber-optic cable?
The fiber-optic cable uses light pulses to carry and transmit data from point to point. Pulses of light are sent from one end of the cable to the other end. The pulses represent data being transmitted that a decoder at the other end of the cable can decode into information.

4. What are the two different types of fiber-optic cables?
There are two primary types of fiber-optic cables: single-mode cable and multi-mode cable. Single-mode cable has one glass fiber strand; whereas, multi-mode cable has two or more strands along the line. Multi-mode cable fibers are physically larger (up to 100 microns in diameter) when compared to single-mode fibers, which may be up to 10 microns.

5. How long is 10Base5 Ethernet cable?
The approximate maximum length of 10Base5 Ethernet cable is 500 meters.

6. What is High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)?
HDMI is an interface standard used for audio-visual equipment, such as high-definition television and DVD player. It simplifies cabling and provides users with the high-quality home theater experience by delivering crystal-clear all-digital audio and video through a single cable.

7. What is the bandwidth of HDMI cable?
HDMI cable can carry a bandwidth of up to five Gigabytes per second.

8. What is Ethernet cord connector?
Ethernet cord connector is a device to connect two Ethernet cables. It is a small box that connects two shorter Ethernet cables.

9. What types of topologies are commonly used for Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN)?
Bus, ring, star, mesh, tree, and cellular topologies are used for LANs; whereas, point-to-point, multipoint, mesh, and cloud topologies are used for WANs.

10. Explain tree topology?
A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is similar to the bus topology but with multiple nodes. It can also be defined as a combination of the bus and star topologies.

11. What devices are commonly used in LAN networks?
The commonly used devices in a LAN network are repeaters, hubs, LAN extenders, bridges, LAN switches, and routers.

12. What is repeater?
A repeater is a device used to interconnect the media segments of an extended network. It enables a series of cable segments to be treated as a single cable. Repeaters receive signals from one network segment and amplify, retime, and retransmit those signals to another network segment to prevent signal deterioration caused by long cable lengths and large numbers of connected devices.

13. What is hub?
A hub is a device that connects multiple user stations, each through a dedicated cable.

14. Multiple devices cannot communicate on the network simultaneously; therefore, what type of method must be used to allow one device to access network media at a time?
Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) and token passing.

15. What is CSMA/CD?
CSMA/CD is a layer 2 access method in which if a transmitting data station detects another signal while transmitting a frame, it stops transmitting the frame. Instead of the frame, it transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send the frame again.

16. What is token passing?
A token is a small frame, which is passed from one node to another in a token ring network. If a node has data to send, it must wait until it receives a token. After the token is received by the node, it seizes the token, marks it as used, and attaches the data. The frame is then addressed to the destination node and the node continues passing the data around the ring until it arrives at the destination node. The destination node copies the data and marks the frame as received. When the sender node receives the frame, it implies that the data is successfully delivered. The sender node then frees the token to be used by another node.

17. List the reasons of transmission failure?

Transmission failure can be caused by the following reasons:
1. Bad cabling.
2. Improper termination.
3. Collisions.
4. Improper cable length.

18. How many stations can be connected to 10Base2, 10BaseT, and 10Base5?
Maximum stations that can be connected to 10Base2 are 30 stations.
Maximum stations that can be connected to 10BaseT are 1024 stations per network.
Maximum stations that can be connected to 10Base5 are 100 nodes per segment and maximum network length of 10Base5 is five segments, that is, approximately 2500 m or 8200 ft.

19. What is the maximum network length of 10Base2 and 10Base5?
The maximum network length of 10Base2 is 185 m for each segment and can be extended up to five segments.
The maximum network length of 10Base5 is 500m for each segment and can be extended up to five segments.

20. What is Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)?
FDDI is a token-passing dual ring fiber optic LAN specification. It supports higher transmission speeds across larger distances of around 2 km (1.3 miles) between two stations.

21. What is network binding?
A network binding binds a protocol to an adapter to carry traffic using that protocol.

22. What is NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) and is it routable?
NetBEUI is designed for peer-to-peer network and is a high_speed protocol used on small networks. It provides a good recovery and error protection. And No, it is not routable.

23. Where is IPX/SPX used?
IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. It is used in the Netware environment. IPX runs at the network layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model; whereas, SPX runs at the transport layer of the OSI model.

24. What is NetBIOS?
NetBIOS stands for Network Basic Input / Output System. It is an application interface, which operates at the session layer. It enables communication between applications with NetBIOS compliant protocol. NetBIOS applications can be supported over Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and IPX/SPX.

25. What is the role of Internet Protocol (IP)?
IP provides connectionless delivery between computer systems. It does not guarantee the delivery of the packets.

26. What is the role of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)?
TCP provides acknowledged and connection oriented communication. It provides guaranteed delivery with proper sequencing of packets and data integrity checks.

27. What is the role of User Datagram Protocol (UDP)?
UDP is designed for connectionless unacknowledged communications. It adds the information about the source and destination socket identifiers in the datagram’s. However, it provides an unreliable service and datagram’s may arrive out of order, or appear duplicated.

28. What is the role of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)?
ARP resolves IP addresses to Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Physical frames have to be addressed to hardware MAC address of destination network device.

29. What is the role of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)?
ICMP controls and manages transmitted information using TCP/IP. It is an error reporting and diagnostic utility that enables nodes, such as routers, intermediary devices, and hosts, to share error information with other nodes.

30. What is Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used for?
HTTP is used for transferring web-based information between client and server. It also defines how information is formatted and transmitted over Internet.

31. What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP) used for?
FTP is used to transfer files between FTP client and FTP server.

32. What is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for?
SMTP is used for sending e-mails between systems in TCP/IP environment. The main objective of this protocol is to transfer e-mails reliably and efficiently.

33. What is Domain Name System (DNS) used for?
DNS is used to resolve logical names into IP addresses. It also stores information, such as the list of mail servers that accept e-mail for a given Internet domain.

34. What is telnet used for?
Telnet is used to enable a remote terminal session across TCP/IP network. It is primarily used on the Internet or LANs to provide a communication facility, which is bidirectional, interactive, and text-oriented, using a remote terminal connection.

35. What is Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) used for?
SLIP sends IP datagram’s over a serial link and transfers network traffic over dialup connection. It is often used where very low overhead is required. It is designed to work over serial ports and modem connection.

36. What is Point-to-Point Protocol used for?
Point-to-Point Protocol is used to transfer network traffic over dialup connection and it supports compression, security, error checking, and flow control. It supports TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBEUI.

37. What is AppleTalk Protocol (ATP) used for?
ATP is used for Macintosh computers to provide connectivity to other computers.

38. What is the use of network services?
Network services enable computers to share data, processing power, and devices. Commonly used network services are file services, print services, and messaging services.

39. What is the use of file services?
File services are used to store and retrieve data files between devices. The different types of application of file services are file access, file synchronization, file backup, and file security.

40. What is the use of print services?
Print services are used to share output devices such as print and fax servers.

41. What are the services provided by an operating system?
The main services provided by an operating system are as follows:
Program execution.
I/O operations.
File system manipulation.
Error detection.

42. What is messaging services used for?
Messaging services are used for the communication among users, their applications, network applications, and individual documents. The user of the messaging services can be a user or application.

43. What is electronic mail?
Electronic mail is a set of applications that supports the transfer of information and data between two network users.

44. What is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) used for?
DHCP is a configuration protocol that allows a computer to be configured automatically to communicate with other computers on the network and provides a centralized database to keep track of computers that have been connected to the network.

45. What is the role of repeater in a network?
Repeater is used for network interconnection to receive a network signal from one LAN cable segment and tc regenerate and retransmit the signal in its original strength to another cable segment. In other words, it amplifies the electronic signals from one network cable segment to another.

46. What layer does repeater work on?
Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model.

47. What is the role of bridges?
Bridges reads the physical address of a device in one network and filters the information before passing the information to another network.

48. What layer does a bridge works on?
A bridge works on the MAC layer of the data link layer in the OSI model.

49. Can bridges connect networks with different architectures?
Yes, bridges can connect different types of networks, such as Ethernet and token ring.

50. How bridges prevent the formation of loops in a network?
Bridges support the spanning tree algorithm, which helps in communicating with each other and negotiating which bridge will remain in the blocking state; and therefore, prevent the formation of loops in the network.

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