Computer Network Question Answer – (Part 4)


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Computer Network Question Answer – (Part 4)

Computer Network

1. What is a TP Monitor in client server environment?
There is no commonly accepted definition for a TP monitor. According to Jeri Edwards’ a TP Monitor is “an OS for transaction processing”.

TP Monitor does mainly two things extremely well. They are Process management and Transaction management.

They were originally introduced to run classes of applications that could service hundreds and sometimes thousands of clients. TP Monitors provide an OS – on top of existing OS – that connects in real time these thousands of humans with a pool of shared server processes.

2. What are all the Base services provided by the OS in client server environment?
Task preemption
Task priority
Interprocess communications (IPC)
Local/Remote Interprocess communication
Intertask protection
High performance file system
Efficient memory management and
Dynamically linked Run-time extensions.

3. What is a Transaction server in client server environment?
With a transaction server, the client invokes remote procedures that reside on the server with an SQL database engine. These remote procedures on the server execute a group of SQL statements. The network exchange consists of a single request/reply message. The SQL statements either all succeed or fail as a unit.

4. What are the five major technologies that can be used to create Client/Server applications in client server environment?
Database Servers
TP Monitors
Distributed Objects

5. What are General Middleware in client server environment?
It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, RPC, Queuing services along with the network OS extensions such as the distributed file and print services.

6. What are the two broad classes of middleware in client server environment?
General middleware,
Service-specific middleware.

7. What is an Object server in client server environment?
With an object server, the Client/Server application is written as a set of communicating objects. Client object communicate with server objects using an Object Request Broker (ORB). The client invokes a method on a remote object. The ORB locates an instance of that object server class, invokes the requested method and returns the results to the client object. Server objects must provide support for concurrency and sharing. The ORB brings it all together.

8. Why is Bluetooth called a cable replacement technology?
Bluetooth technology allows the creation of Personal Area Networks without cables or wires that are usual in home networks.

9. Give a generic description of Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is a low-cost, short-range (RF) links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. Bluetooth can transmit through solid, non-metal objects.

10. Why can Bluetooth equipment integrate easily in TCP/IP network?
Because Bluetooth uses wireless LAN standards IEEE for data transmission.

11. Explain Proxy ARP?
It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.

12. Explain OSPF?
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet’s topology to make accurate routing decisions.

13. Explain Kerberos?
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

14. Explain a Multi-homed Host?
It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host.

15. Explain NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.

16. Explain Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?
It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.

17. Explain BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?
It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).

18. Explain autonomous system?
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.

19. Explain EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)?
It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system.

20. Explain IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.

21. Explain passive topology?
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology – linear bus.

22. Explain Protocol Data Unit?
The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I – frame) or a supervisory frame (S – frame) or a unnumbered frame (U – frame).

23. Explain difference between baseband and broadband transmission?
In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously.

24. Explain External Data Representation?
External Data Representation is a method of encoding data within an RPC message, used to ensure that the data is not system-dependent.

25. What does the Mount protocol do?
The Mount protocol returns a file handle and the name of the file system in which a requested file resides. The message is sent to the client from the server after reception of a client’s request.

26. Explain a pseudo tty?
A pseudo tty or false terminal enables external machines to connect through Telnet or rlogin. Without a pseudo tty, no connection can take place.

27. Explain anonymous FTP and why would you use it?
Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Usually, anonymous FTP uses a login called anonymous or guest, with the password usually requesting the user’s ID for tracking purposes only. Anonymous FTP is used to enable a large number of users to access files on the host without having to go to the trouble of setting up logins for them all. Anonymous FTP systems usually have strict controls over the areas an anonymous user can access.

28. Explain a Management Information Base (MIB)?
A Management Information Base is part of every SNMP-managed device. Each SNMP agent has the MIB database that contains information about the device’s status, its performance, connections, and configuration. The MIB is queried by SNMP.

29. Explain the difference between an unspecified passive open and a fully specified passive open?
An unspecified passive open has the server waiting for a connection request from a client. A fully specified passive open has the server waiting for a connection from a specific client.

30. Explain redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer.

31. Explain NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.

32. Explain RAID?
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.

33. Explain cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.

34. Explain attenuation?
The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.

35. Explain MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.

36. Difference between bit rate and baud rate?
Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. baud rate = bit rate / N where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.

37. Explain Bandwidth?
Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth.

38. Explain ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages.

39. Explain difference between ARP and RARP?
The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.

40. Explain the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram?
The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes.

41. Expand IDEA?
IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm.

42. Define the term “DMZ” as it pertains to network security, and name three different common network devices that are typically found there?
It’s easy to think of your network as the “inside”, and everything else as “outside”. However, we’ve got a third area when it comes to firewalls – the DMZ.

From an IT standpoint, the DMZ is the part of our network that is exposed to outside networks. It’s common to find the following devices in a DMZ:
• FTP server
• Email server
• E-commerce server
• DNS servers
• Web servers.

43. Does the Cisco IOS Firewall feature set act as a stateful or stateless packet filter?
The Cisco IOS Firewall is a stateful filter.

44. What is the access list range for extended IP Access list?
The access list range is 100 – 199.

45. Name a x.25 addressing standard?
X.121 is a x.25 layer 3 add. standard.

46. Where can the backup configuration file be found?
It is stored in the NVRAM.

47. How can a router be configured?
It can be configured by TFTP, Nvram or Console

48. Which mechanism takes place in a traffic light?
Flow control.

49. What is Windowing?
It is a kind of flow control.

50. Name the OSI Layer which helps ensure packet delivery?
Network layer.

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